Chemical Composition

15 techniques found
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X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $365 per Sample

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a highly surface-specific chemical analytical technique used to probe the elemental composition and bonding states in the outermost 2-10 nm of a solid surface. To characterize composition as a function of penetration depth in the sample, depth-profiling tests can be performed to iteratively access sub-surface compositional layers.

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SEM + Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy
SEM + Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM + EDS)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $325 per Hour

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a surface imaging technique capable of achieving nm resolution on topographical features. Additionally, all Covalent instruments are also outfitted with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detectors to capture quantitative elemental composition measurements, as well as 2D elemental maps, in addition to conventional SEM images.

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FIB-SEM + Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy
FIB-SEM + Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (FIB-SEM + EDS)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $475 per Hour

FIB-SEM systems are used to produce 2D and 3D images of surface topography, and are able to resolve nm-scale features on a sample surface. In addition to standard SEM capabilities, the inclusion of the focused-ion-beam also allows for in situ sample manipulation.

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STEM + Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy
STEM + Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (STEM + EDS)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $1250 per Sample

TEM is the highest-resolution imaging technique available today. It is used to visualize sample features with atomic-level spatial resolution limits in order to characterize morphology of complex nanostructures. Different imaging modes on the TEM can target certain types of contrast: amplitude contrast (arising from atomic number and mass/thickness) phase contrast (from quantum phase shifting due to multiple scattered beams’ interference), diffraction contrast (from crystal structure and orientation), and more.

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Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (WDXRF)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $400 per Hour

Wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF) is a non-contact, non-destructive technique used to measure elemental composition, elemental concentration per unit area, and film thickness. Due to its acute element sensitivity, it is particularly useful for identifying trace elements.

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Micron-spot Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Micron-spot Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Micro-EDXRF)
In Chemical Composition
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EDXRF is a fast, nondestructive spectroscopy technique used to determine the elemental composition of a near-surface volume, and to compute thin film thickness in a multilayer stack. Uniquely available at Covalent is one of the first EDXRF systems ever to incorporate a micron-scale beam spot, as well as integrated hybrid sensor systems to accelerate data collection.

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Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR
Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $225 per Sample

Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a nondestructive, optical technique used to characterize optical properties of a material, and to qualitatively identify chemical functional groups and trace chemicals present in a specimen.

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Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy
Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $225 per Sample

Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a nondestructive, optical technique used to characterize optical properties of a material, and to qualitatively identify chemical functional groups and trace chemicals present in a specimen.

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Ultraviolet Visible Near Infrared Spectrophotometry
Ultraviolet Visible Near Infrared Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis-NIR)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $125 per Sample

Ultraviolet-Visible-Near Infrared spectrophotometry (UV-Vis-NIR) is a non-destructive, non-contact optical characterization technique used to measure reflectance, absorbance, and transmittance of liquids and solids. It can be used to refine advanced optical modeling, or to make efficient, direct measurements of standard optical properties.

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Ion Scattering Spectroscopy
Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS)
In Chemical Composition
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Ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) provides quantitative elemental composition information from the very outermost atomic layer of a surface. ISS produces a spectrum of peaks with energy indicative of elemental species, and intensity indicative of quantitative concentration.

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Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) (Auger)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $335 per Hour

Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) is a surface-sensitive analytical technique used to quantify and map the elemental composition of the outermost 2-10 nm of a material. In conjunction with ion beam sputtering, depth profiling can also be done on samples to provide composition as a function of depth as well as layer thicknesses.

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Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy
Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $800 per Hour

Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) is a highly surface-specific analytical technique used to qualitatively assess the composition of elements and functional groups within the outermost 1-2 nm of a sample. It is especially well suited to mapping applications and ultra-trace element detection.

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Electron Probe Microanalysis
Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $325 per Sample

Electron probe microanlysis (EPMA) is a non-destructive technique used for high-sensitivity, quantitative determination of the elemental composition of a material.

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Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy
Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $390 per Sample

GCMS is performed to generate a quantitative representation of the chemicals present in a sample. It can be used to separate and quantify compounds in chemical mixtures and it captures more molecular structure information for organic samples than ICP-MS.

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
In Chemical Composition
Base Price: $100 per Sample

NMR is a chemical analytical technique used to assay the composition and chemical structure of solutions, solids, mixtures, and macromolecules. Due to its ability to capture dynamic molecular behavior, it can also be used to characterize reaction kinetics, real-time structural rearrangements, substrate binding and catalysis, and many other processes.

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