X-ray Diffraction is a nondestructive analytical technique which can be used to measure both physical and chemical properties of crystalline powders, thin films, epitaxial films, and bulk solid materials. Additionally, advanced modeling can be performed from high-resolution XRD data to obtain layer composition and thickness information for epitaxial films, and rocking-curves procedures can be used to show the quality of the films.
XRR is a non-contact, non-destructive x-ray characterization technique suitable for both amorphous and crystalline materials. It provides refined film thicknesses, densities, and interfacial roughness determinations for film stacks whose approximate chemistries and thicknesses are known.
Wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF) is a non-contact, non-destructive technique used to measure elemental composition, elemental concentration per unit area, and film thickness. Due to its acute element sensitivity, it is particularly useful for identifying trace elements.
EDXRF is a fast, nondestructive spectroscopy technique used to determine the elemental composition of a near-surface volume, and to compute thin film thickness in a multilayer stack. Uniquely available at Covalent is one of the first EDXRF systems ever to incorporate a micron-scale beam spot, as well as integrated hybrid sensor systems to accelerate data collection.
X-ray computed tomography (often referred to as Micro-CT due to its spatial resolution) is a non-contact, nondestructive 2D / 3D imaging technique used to capture morphology and topography at the micron scale of the exterior and interior of the sample. It produces a 3D model which can be quantitatively measured to analyze critical dimensions of surface and subsurface components.