Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (WDXRF) Services

Wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF) services from Covalent Metrology are one of the most cost-efficient, nondestructive compositional analysis techniques available in the industry.

In a WDXRF measurement, the sample is irradiated with high energy x-rays. This irradiation stimulates the emission of characteristic x-rays associated with elements present in the material. WDXRF spectrometers use Bragg diffraction from crystals within the instrument to produce wavelength-separated peaks, each associated with a specific element. This yields semi-quantitative, and quantitative (if calibrated), information about the elements present in the sample matrix and their atomic ratios. Unlike EDXRF, WDXRF has excellent light element detection capability.


WDXRF is most widely used in research and development of materials and quality testing across industries from petroleum/gas to marine and health sciences. It can be used to identify all elements present in a given specimen, and/or to very accurately quantify the content of elements in a sample. As a result of its low cost and high-throughput, WDXRF makes for an easy check in any QA workflow but is robust and accurate enough to occupy a role in environmental and consumer safety evaluations.

Furthermore, the technique leads the field in detection limits for trace elements, the tool can be used to accurately quantify the atomic concentration of certain elements in metallic thin films.


  • Identification of all elements (Atomic Number ≥ 4) present in a sample
  • Elemental quantification (when standards are available)
  • Semi-quantitative comparison of the relative concentration of elements present in samples


  • What it is great for:
    • Very low detection limits, enabling identification of trace elements
    • High resolution compared to EDXRF
    • Excellent reproducibility
    • Minimal sample prep necessary; data collection is quick and straightforward
  • Limitations:
    • High accuracy quantification of values needs calibrated standards.


Rigaku ZSX Primus II X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

The Rigaku ZSX Primus II is Rigaku’s high-performance, compact WDXRF spectroscopy system. The tool is outfitted with 10 different built-in Bragg diffraction crystals to detect any elements from 4Be to 92U. Furthermore, both crystal and sample exchange are fully automated, controlled with Rigaku’s accompanying Primus II software suite. The goniometer, which drives the automated geometric alignments to satisfy Bragg’s law, is state of the art with an angular range from 5 to 118°, and user-controlled scan speeds from 0.1-240 °/min. Flow-proportional counter and scintillation counter detectors are both included in the tool, to optimize detectability of both light and heavy elements, respectively. 

© 2019 by Covalent Metrology Services Proudly powered by WordPress