Failure Analysis

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Devices and components can fail to operate properly for many reasons. Accurately determining root causes of these failures requires extensive experience, keen attention to detail and access to a range of analytical techniques.

In 2020, Covalent acquired the business and integrated the team from Riga Analytical: a highly regarded failure analysis lab founded by Giorgio Riga in 1982. Combining the experienced Riga team with the full suite of advanced analytical techniques and expertise at Covalent has dramatically expanded our FA service offering. Our FA expertise covers a wide range of products, including chips, PC boards and many types of advanced componentry used in medical devices, semiconductor manufacturing, displays and consumer electronics, to name a few.

Whether you are the manufacturer or the user of devices that are not working properly, Covalent Metrology is fully equipped to help.

Failure Analysis Services:
Advanced Optical Microscopy
Advanced Optical Microscopy
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $225 / Hour

Optical microscopy is ubiquitous in diverse fields within academic research and commercial industries. It is an affordable, rapid analytical imaging technique used to visualize samples. While optical microscopes may be common, many instruments fall far short on performance when compared with the cutting-edge digital microscope systems available at Covalent.

Auger Electron Spectroscopy
Auger Electron Spectroscopy
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $335 / Hour

Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) is a surface-sensitive analytical technique used to quantify and map the elemental composition of the outermost 2-10 nm of a material. In conjunction with ion beam sputtering, depth profiling can also be done on samples to provide composition as a function of depth as well as layer thicknesses.

Dye & Pry Testing
Dye & Pry Testing
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $450 / Sample

Dye and Pry testing is a destructive, IPC-described failure-analysis and quality-control technique performed on solder joints on printed circuit board assemblies (PCBA) to identify certain defects unique to solder joints.

Emission Microscopy
Emission Microscopy
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $300 / Hour

Emission Microscopy (EMMI) is a non-invasive and non-destructive optical analysis technique used to localize photon emissions from fault points on integrated circuits.

Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy
Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $225 / Sample

Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a nondestructive, optical technique used to characterize optical properties of a material, and to qualitatively identify chemical functional groups and trace chemicals present in a specimen.

Infrared Thermography
Infrared Thermography
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $300 / Hour

Infrared thermography can be used to measure the heat distribution in integrated circuits (die) and printed circuit boards, and nearly any powered device to detect hot spots.

IPC Compliance Testing
IPC Compliance Testing
In Failure Analysis
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IPC Compliance testing via destructive physical analysis provides a comprehensive screening for quality assurance and comprises the best-known method to identify design or production issues in electronics assemblies, components, and fabricated boards. This procedure includes a complete program of analytical methods and procedures for characterizing modern electronics boards.

Mechanical Cross-Section Analysis
Mechanical Cross-Section Analysis
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $450 / Sample

Material cross section analysis enables one to expose buried features on a sample in a controlled fashion, to assay critical dimensions, or to identify miscellaneous structural defects or abnormalities such as: cracks, bridging, delamination, deformations, and more. In addition, Covalent staff are certified to conduct IPC qualified cross-sectional procedures for PCB failure analysis and quality control.

Nanoindentation
Nanoindentation
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $300 / Sample

Nanoindentation is a quasi-static mode of nanomechanical analysis used to measure hardness and reduced elastic modulus of solid samples. Hardness is determined by calculating the ratio of the maximum force to the area of the tip. Modulus is determined by fitting the unload-curve to a linear slope.

Nanomechanical Scratch Test
Nanomechanical Scratch Test
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $450 / Sample

Nanomechanical scratch testing (nano-scratch) is an alternate nanomechanical testing mode to nano-indent or nano-wear box testing, which is used to measure force response and mechanical properties typically of thin films and coatings. In addition to standard penetration depth and indent characteristics, the nano-scratch test also calibrates and measures the amount of force required to keep the tip moving laterally across the sample surface.

Near-infrared Imaging
Near-infrared Imaging
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $300 / Hour

Near-infrared imaging (NIR) is a nondestructive, noninvasive, and highly efficient method for localizing certain defects in photovoltaics and solar cells via electroluminescence.

Scanning Acoustic Microscopy
Scanning Acoustic Microscopy
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $450 / Hour

Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) is a non-destructive and non-invasive imaging technique which uses ultrasound signals to visualize the sample. The two primary modes of detection are reflection and transmission, and lateral imaging resolution is dependent on the frequency of the transducer and the speed of sound through the material.

Wide Area 3D Patterned Light Measurement
Wide Area 3D Patterned Light Measurement
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $275 / Hour

Wide Area 3D Patterned Light measurements encompass a class of optical profilometry techniques used to visualize the surface topography of larger samples. Unique to this technique, the generated 3D model is compatible for output as a CAD overlay for volumetric comparison in process and part evaluation.

X-ray Computed Tomography
X-ray Computed Tomography
In Failure Analysis
Base Price: $400 / Hour

X-ray computed tomography (often referred to as Micro-CT due to its spatial resolution) is a non-contact, nondestructive 2D / 3D imaging technique used to capture morphology and topography at the micron scale of the exterior and interior of the sample. It produces a 3D model which can be quantitatively measured to analyze critical dimensions of surface and subsurface components.