Your Trusted Partner
Measurement Characterization imaging

We are a state-of-the-art materials characterization company staffed by world-class scientists and engineers.

  • We provide characterization, imaging, and measurement services of advanced materials and devices
  • We also perform mechanical cross-sectioning, metallography and PCBA analysis
  • We offer consulting services to solve problems from lab to fab

Covalent Metrology is a modern materials characterization company staffed by world-class scientists and engineers


Episode 17 of Covalent Academy will explore common misunderstandings about the work function of materials. We’re dialing in to the mainstream and modern techniques used to measure work function and sharing tactics to ensure you’re accessing the right information with these methods. 

The event, ‘Work Function: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Reality’ will be aired live on October 8, 2020 at 11 AM PDT. Click below to register now!

The work function of a material reflects the amount of energy required to free an electron from the valence band (or Fermi Level) in the material’s solid state to the vacuum level. Although sometimes used as a material property, all work function measurements measure the properties of the surface, not the bulk.

Work function measurements are difficult because they are highly sensitive to the atomic-scale details of a surface. While there are many ways to measure work function, this often leads users to improperly analyze the work function of the surface . . .

Past episodes can be accessed by registrants through our Community.

Complimentary Sample Pick-Up and Drop-Off

Now it’s easier than ever to access great testing services! Schedule sample pick-up or drop-off now and our “Little Blue” Prius will come to you!

We provide free local sample pick-up and drop off in the San Francisco Bay area for all jobs over $1,000, and will courier other samples for a small service fee. Give us a call with any questions, or schedule online and one of our commercial team members will be in touch with you soon.

Pricing: Analytical Services

Characterization, Imaging & Measurement Services

Prices reflect base rates for standard measurements; with $500 minimum / job. Contact us to see how you can save with our bulk discounts and subscription analytical service options.

  • Our pricing is usually 20-30% lower than leading competitors
  • No price premiums, even when we can get you data the same day
Application Technique Instrument Starting Price
Crystallinity, Composition, and Residual Stress: Thin Films, Bulk, and Other Low-texture Materials XRD: Qual. Phase ID Rigaku SmartLab $380 / sample
XRD: Crystallinity, Crystallite Size, OR Texture Analysis $380 / sample
– 2 of 3 above $6001 / sample
– All 3 of the above $8001 / sample
XRD: Quant. Phase ID $600 / sample
XRD: Residual Stress $380 / sample
Orientation, Composition, Quality, and Residual Stress: Epitaxial Films, Single Crystals, and Other High-texture Materials XRD: Pole Figures Rigaku SmartLab $400 / sample
XRD: Offcut $400 / sample
XRD: Residual Stress +XRD: Rocking Curves $6002 / sample
XRD: Rocking Curves + Quality(per plane) $5002 / sample
XRD: Rocking Curves, Composition, AND Thickness(per plane) $7002 / sample
Thickness, Density, Interfacial Roughness XRR Rigaku SmartLab $500 / sample
Optical Constants, Thickness Spectral Ellipsometry – Mapping (10-point) Woollam VASE 2000 DI $250 / sample
Spectral Ellipsometry – Variable Anlge (single-point) Woollam VASE 2000 DI $125 / sample3
Optical Transmission / Reflection UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometry Perkin Elmer 1050 $125 / sample
Surface Topography / Roughness, Critical Dimension Analysis, Step Height / Thicknesses Laser Confocal Keyence VK-X1100 $300 / hour
White Light Interferometry Zygo ZeGage Plus $225 / hour
Wide-Area 3D Patterned Light Measurement Keyence VR-3200 $225 / hour
Keyence VR-5200 $275 / hour
Advanced Optical Microscopy Keyence VHX-S660E $225 / hour
AFM / SPM: Roughness / Topography Anton Paar Tosca $175 / image4
Asylum Research Jupiter XR
Bruker Dimension (Icon / FastScan Heads)
AFM: Advanced Modes(KPFM, MFM, PFM, etc) Bruker Dimension (Icon / FastScan Heads) $475 / hour
Micro-CT Rigaku CT Lab HX130 $400 / hour
Chromatic Dispersion Profilometry Microprof FRT 200 $360 / hour
Electron Microscopy Cross-Sectional / Planar Imaging Analysis: Structure, Thicknesses, Interfaces, and Composition SEM Hitachi 4700 $225 / hour
HR-SEM Thermo Scientific Helios 5 $375 / hour
Thermo Scientific Scios (magnetic samples) $375 / hour
Add EDX / EDS Any + $50 / hour
Add Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Helios 5 and Scios only + $50 / hour
Add both EDX/EDS + FIB Helios 5 and Scios only + $75 / hour
Large Area SEM (up to 15 inches) FEI Expida 1265 $325 / hour
Environmental SEM (temp 25 to 1100 C, CL) FEI Quanta 200 ESEM $325 / hour
TEM (includes sample prep) Thermo Scientific Talos FEI Tecnai Spirit G2 $850 / sample
Add EDX / EDS $1250 / sample
Add EELS $1500 / sample5
Nanomechanical Analysis: Hardness, Adhesion, Coefficient of Friction, Stress Nano-indent (> 100 nm thick)6 Bruker Hysitron TI Premier $300 / sample
Nano-indent (< 100 nm thick)6 $450 / sample
Nano-scratch (> 100 nm thick)6 $450 / sample
Nano-scratch (< 100 nm thick)6 $675 / sample
Nano-wear (> 100 nm thick)6 $700 / sample
Nano-wear (< 100 nm thick)6 $1050 / sample
Particle Size / Location Particle Counter (SP1) KLA Tencor SurfScan SP1 $225 / sample
Particle Counter (SP3) KLA Tencor SurfScan SP3 $400 / sample
Particle Size Distribution Dynamic Light Scattering Anton Paar Litesizer 500 $350 / sample7
Particle Size Analysis Anton Paar PSA 1190 LD $250 / sample
Rheometry / Rheology Viscosity / Rheological Properties Anton Paar MCR 302 Rheometer $350 / hour
Zeta Potential Colloidal Dispersion Anton Paar Litesizer 500 $300 / sample7
Solid Surface (single pH value) Anton Paar SurPASS 3 $350 / sample7
Solid Surface (pH range: 9 to 3)8 Anton Paar SurPASS 3 $900 / sample7
Polymer Analysis Thermomechanical Property Testing: Tg, Tm, Cure Properties, Viscoelasticity, Elastic Modulus, Hardness, Thermal Stability TGA TA Instruments SDT 600 $300 / sample
DSC TA Instruments DSC-2920 $300 / sample
TMA TA Instruments Q400 Please contact us.
DMA Anton Paar MCR 702 Please contact us.
FTIR Microscopy Perkin Elmer Optima $225 / sample
TGA-FTIR Perkin Elmer + TA Instruments $600 / sample
Pyrolysis FTIR Perkin Elmer CDS Pyrolyzer $250 / sample
Surface Chemical Analysis:Elemental Composition / Bonding Information XPS: Survey Scan Thermo Scientific Nexsa $365 / sample9
XPS: Survey Scan + High Res $730 / sample9
XPS: Depth Profile $1095 / sample
XPS: Mapping $1460 / sample
XPS + ISS $365 / sample
XPS + UPS: Valence Band Please contact us.
XPS + UPS: Work Function Please contact us.
ToF-SIMS ION-TOF Model IV Please contact us.
PHI ToF-SIMS $800 / hour
Auger: Basic Custom $335 / hour
Auger: High Performance PHI 710 Auger Spectrometer $650 / hour
Micro-spot EDXRF Rigaku ONYX 3000 Please contact us.
Bulk Material Elemental Composition Analysis EPMA: Basic CAMECA SX100 EPMA $325 / sample
EPMA: Advanced $650 / sample
WDXRF: Basic Rigaku AZX 400 $400 / hour10
WDXRF: High Performance
Chemical Analysis NMR: Liquid Bruker Avance III-HD 500 MHz NMRor equivalent $100 / sample+ $175 / hour tech time
NMR: Solid Bruker Avance III-HD 600 MHz NMR $700 / sample
FTIR (Ge / Diamond-C Crystals) Thermo Scientific Nicolet 6700 $225 / sample
ATR-FTIR Thermo Scientific Nicolet 6700 + Smart iTR Accessory $175 / sample
ICP-MS / ICP-OES Please contact us. $450 / sample11
GD-MS Please contact us. $700 / sample
Pyrolysis GC-MS Please contact us. $600 / sample
Thermal Desorption GC-MS Agilent 7890 GC with 5975 MS $390 / sample

Prices apply for standard jobs in these techniques, which is determined at quote issuance.

1 If given accurate qualitative phase ID
2 If given crystallographic orientation
3 Plus $150 set-up fee / class, and job minimum
4 Minimum 3 Images at this price; plus $150 setup fee
5 Valence oxidation state requires special setup: please call for quote
6 Thickness (in nm) of sample coating; Hysitron nanomechanical testing also requires $300 method development fee
7 Material costs, accessory fees, and waste disposal fee may apply
8 Includes 3 zeta potential measurements taken at each pH value
9 Pricing depends on job complexity
10 Plus setup fee and job minimum
11 Plus $350 sample preparation fee

14: Copyright Covalent Metrology, 2020

Insights beyond raw data

We have world-class metrologists working side-by-side with accomplished engineers & scientists in a high-touch & quality-centric way

Our customer engagement model is superior. We work to:

  • Understand your goals and problem statement — clearly and precisely
  • Make thoughtful recommendations regarding both effectiveness AND economics
  • Generate great data on high-quality, calibrated and well-maintained instruments
  • Meet to review & interpret results and then assist you in thinking through next steps

As a material characterization services company, our mission is to help with your characterization, measurement, and imaging work as a trusted partner in achieving your objectives. Whether discussing data on a standard sample or helping on complex consulting engagements, we bring insight and experience.

Flexible services

We have a variety of programs to address the different needs of our customers

  • Membership pricing

    Pre-purchase in bulk to get pricing well below our already competitive “standard” prices.
  • Co-op programs

    Let Covalent host and/or operate your instruments. A smart option when considering buying new instruments or for managing tools you own that are underutilized, expensive or difficult to operate/maintain. Covalent’s customers get better results for less CAPEX + OPEX, while maintaining preferred access.
  • consulting services

    Leverage Covalent professionals to provide specific expertise or even stand in for in-house Metrology functions.
  • Custom bundles

    Solve your toughest problems with custom contracts combining Consulting Services with bulk-priced Sample Testing.

Upcoming and Recent Events

August 4, 2020 – Covalent’s Chris Moore, Vice President Technology to present at Rigaku’s Virtual Analytical X-Ray Convention,  “Technology Insights & Trends Across the Metrology and Material Characterization Industry”  


May 28, 2020 – NCCAVS Thin Film Users Group (TFUG) Virtual Meeting 2:45 pm: X-Ray Diffraction From the Easy to the Hard. Featuring Chris Moore, VP Technology at Covalent Metrology  

February 4-6, 2020 – APEX EXPO IPC 2020

IPC APEX EXPO is the largest event for electronics manufacturing in North America with more than 9,000 professionals from 45 countries.

Dec. 4, 2019—SMTA Silicon Valley Chapter

Covalent Metrology is showcasing it’s failure analysis and materials characterization services to the SMTA community

Nov. 20-21, 2019—IDTechEX

Covalent Metrology will be exhibiting at the IDTechEX to showcase its characterization services for the the latest trends happening in Materials, Manufacturing and Component Innovation. 

Nov. 5-7, 2019—MicroTech Innovation Summit 2019

Craig Hunter, Covalent Metrology CEO, is a Technology Innovation Showcase Presenter on “Metrology and Characterization: Emerging Techniques for MEMS and Sensors Devices.”

Latest Publications

Atomic Force Microscopy for Advanced Optical Components

New applications for optical components place ever-higher demands on surface roughness and finish specifications. Current generation atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques provide accurate 3D images with sub-angstrom accuracy in less than a minute. These advancements make AFM ideal for applications requiring more detailed information than available with optical interferometry techniques.

Mid-Range Optical Profilometry: An Overview

Profilometry for surface characterization and dimensioning is a key area of expertise for Covalent Metrology and is proving invaluable to customers across a wide range of applications. At Covalent Metrology, profilometry covers a complete range of surface features using everything from atomic force microscopy (AFM) to optical systems to mechanical stylus systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the technology behind each of the three optical profilometry techniques Covalent Metrology offers and to discuss the relative advantages of each of them.

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