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Episode 17 of Covalent Academy will explore common misunderstandings about the work function of materials. We’re dialing in to the mainstream and modern techniques used to measure work function and sharing tactics to ensure you’re accessing the right information with these methods.
The event, ‘Work Function: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Reality’ will be aired live on October 8, 2020 at 11 AM PDT. Click below to register now!
The work function of a material reflects the amount of energy required to free an electron from the valence band (or Fermi Level) in the material’s solid state to the vacuum level. Although sometimes used as a material property, all work function measurements measure the properties of the surface, not the bulk.
Work function measurements are difficult because they are highly sensitive to the atomic-scale details of a surface. While there are many ways to measure work function, this often leads users to improperly analyze the work function of the surface . . .
Complimentary Sample Pick-Up and Drop-Off
Now it’s easier than ever to access great testing services! Schedule sample pick-up or drop-off now and our “Little Blue” Prius will come to you!
We provide free local sample pick-up and drop off in the San Francisco Bay area for all jobs over $1,000, and will courier other samples for a small service fee. Give us a call with any questions, or schedule online and one of our commercial team members will be in touch with you soon.
Pricing: Analytical Services
Characterization, Imaging & Measurement Services
Prices reflect base rates for standard measurements; with $500 minimum / job. Contact us to see how you can save with our bulk discounts and subscription analytical service options.
- Our pricing is usually 20-30% lower than leading competitors
- No price premiums, even when we can get you data the same day
|Crystallinity, Composition, and Residual Stress: Thin Films, Bulk, and Other Low-texture Materials||XRD: Qual. Phase ID||Rigaku SmartLab||$380 / sample|
|XRD: Crystallinity, Crystallite Size, OR Texture Analysis||$380 / sample|
|– 2 of 3 above||$6001 / sample|
|– All 3 of the above||$8001 / sample|
|XRD: Quant. Phase ID||$600 / sample|
|XRD: Residual Stress||$380 / sample|
|Orientation, Composition, Quality, and Residual Stress: Epitaxial Films, Single Crystals, and Other High-texture Materials||XRD: Pole Figures||Rigaku SmartLab||$400 / sample|
|XRD: Offcut||$400 / sample|
|XRD: Residual Stress +XRD: Rocking Curves||$6002 / sample|
|XRD: Rocking Curves + Quality(per plane)||$5002 / sample|
|XRD: Rocking Curves, Composition, AND Thickness(per plane)||$7002 / sample|
|Thickness, Density, Interfacial Roughness||XRR||Rigaku SmartLab||$500 / sample|
|Optical Constants, Thickness||Spectral Ellipsometry – Mapping (10-point)||Woollam VASE 2000 DI||$250 / sample|
|Spectral Ellipsometry – Variable Anlge (single-point)||Woollam VASE 2000 DI||$125 / sample3|
|Optical Transmission / Reflection||UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometry||Perkin Elmer 1050||$125 / sample|
|Surface Topography / Roughness, Critical Dimension Analysis, Step Height / Thicknesses||Laser Confocal||Keyence VK-X1100||$300 / hour|
|White Light Interferometry||Zygo ZeGage Plus||$225 / hour|
|Wide-Area 3D Patterned Light Measurement||Keyence VR-3200||$225 / hour|
|Keyence VR-5200||$275 / hour|
|Advanced Optical Microscopy||Keyence VHX-S660E||$225 / hour|
|AFM / SPM: Roughness / Topography||Anton Paar Tosca||$175 / image4|
|Asylum Research Jupiter XR|
|Bruker Dimension (Icon / FastScan Heads)|
|AFM: Advanced Modes(KPFM, MFM, PFM, etc)||Bruker Dimension (Icon / FastScan Heads)||$475 / hour|
|Micro-CT||Rigaku CT Lab HX130||$400 / hour|
|Chromatic Dispersion Profilometry||Microprof FRT 200||$360 / hour|
|Electron Microscopy Cross-Sectional / Planar Imaging Analysis: Structure, Thicknesses, Interfaces, and Composition||SEM||Hitachi 4700||$225 / hour|
|HR-SEM||Thermo Scientific Helios 5||$375 / hour|
|Thermo Scientific Scios (magnetic samples)||$375 / hour|
|Add EDX / EDS||Any||+ $50 / hour|
|Add Focused Ion Beam (FIB)||Helios 5 and Scios only||+ $50 / hour|
|Add both EDX/EDS + FIB||Helios 5 and Scios only||+ $75 / hour|
|Large Area SEM (up to 15 inches)||FEI Expida 1265||$325 / hour|
|Environmental SEM (temp 25 to 1100 C, CL)||FEI Quanta 200 ESEM||$325 / hour|
|TEM (includes sample prep)||Thermo Scientific Talos FEI Tecnai Spirit G2||$850 / sample|
|Add EDX / EDS||$1250 / sample|
|Add EELS||$1500 / sample5|
|Nanomechanical Analysis: Hardness, Adhesion, Coefficient of Friction, Stress||Nano-indent (> 100 nm thick)6||Bruker Hysitron TI Premier||$300 / sample|
|Nano-indent (< 100 nm thick)6||$450 / sample|
|Nano-scratch (> 100 nm thick)6||$450 / sample|
|Nano-scratch (< 100 nm thick)6||$675 / sample|
|Nano-wear (> 100 nm thick)6||$700 / sample|
|Nano-wear (< 100 nm thick)6||$1050 / sample|
|Particle Size / Location||Particle Counter (SP1)||KLA Tencor SurfScan SP1||$225 / sample|
|Particle Counter (SP3)||KLA Tencor SurfScan SP3||$400 / sample|
|Particle Size Distribution||Dynamic Light Scattering||Anton Paar Litesizer 500||$350 / sample7|
|Particle Size Analysis||Anton Paar PSA 1190 LD||$250 / sample|
|Rheometry / Rheology||Viscosity / Rheological Properties||Anton Paar MCR 302 Rheometer||$350 / hour|
|Zeta Potential||Colloidal Dispersion||Anton Paar Litesizer 500||$300 / sample7|
|Solid Surface (single pH value)||Anton Paar SurPASS 3||$350 / sample7|
|Solid Surface (pH range: 9 to 3)8||Anton Paar SurPASS 3||$900 / sample7|
|Polymer Analysis Thermomechanical Property Testing: Tg, Tm, Cure Properties, Viscoelasticity, Elastic Modulus, Hardness, Thermal Stability||TGA||TA Instruments SDT 600||$300 / sample|
|DSC||TA Instruments DSC-2920||$300 / sample|
|TMA||TA Instruments Q400||Please contact us.|
|DMA||Anton Paar MCR 702||Please contact us.|
|FTIR Microscopy||Perkin Elmer Optima||$225 / sample|
|TGA-FTIR||Perkin Elmer + TA Instruments||$600 / sample|
|Pyrolysis FTIR||Perkin Elmer CDS Pyrolyzer||$250 / sample|
|Surface Chemical Analysis:Elemental Composition / Bonding Information||XPS: Survey Scan||Thermo Scientific Nexsa||$365 / sample9|
|XPS: Survey Scan + High Res||$730 / sample9|
|XPS: Depth Profile||$1095 / sample|
|XPS: Mapping||$1460 / sample|
|XPS + ISS||$365 / sample|
|XPS + UPS: Valence Band||Please contact us.|
|XPS + UPS: Work Function||Please contact us.|
|ToF-SIMS||ION-TOF Model IV||Please contact us.|
|PHI ToF-SIMS||$800 / hour|
|Auger: Basic||Custom||$335 / hour|
|Auger: High Performance||PHI 710 Auger Spectrometer||$650 / hour|
|Micro-spot EDXRF||Rigaku ONYX 3000||Please contact us.|
|Bulk Material Elemental Composition Analysis||EPMA: Basic||CAMECA SX100 EPMA||$325 / sample|
|EPMA: Advanced||$650 / sample|
|WDXRF: Basic||Rigaku AZX 400||$400 / hour10|
|WDXRF: High Performance|
|Chemical Analysis||NMR: Liquid||Bruker Avance III-HD 500 MHz NMRor equivalent||$100 / sample+ $175 / hour tech time|
|NMR: Solid||Bruker Avance III-HD 600 MHz NMR||$700 / sample|
|FTIR (Ge / Diamond-C Crystals)||Thermo Scientific Nicolet 6700||$225 / sample|
|ATR-FTIR||Thermo Scientific Nicolet 6700 + Smart iTR Accessory||$175 / sample|
|ICP-MS / ICP-OES||Please contact us.||$450 / sample11|
|GD-MS||Please contact us.||$700 / sample|
|Pyrolysis GC-MS||Please contact us.||$600 / sample|
|Thermal Desorption GC-MS||Agilent 7890 GC with 5975 MS||$390 / sample|
Prices apply for standard jobs in these techniques, which is determined at quote issuance.
1 If given accurate qualitative phase ID
2 If given crystallographic orientation
3 Plus $150 set-up fee / class, and job minimum
4 Minimum 3 Images at this price; plus $150 setup fee
5 Valence oxidation state requires special setup: please call for quote
6 Thickness (in nm) of sample coating; Hysitron nanomechanical testing also requires $300 method development fee
7 Material costs, accessory fees, and waste disposal fee may apply
8 Includes 3 zeta potential measurements taken at each pH value
9 Pricing depends on job complexity
10 Plus setup fee and job minimum
11 Plus $350 sample preparation fee
14: Copyright Covalent Metrology, 2020
Insights beyond raw data
We have world-class metrologists working side-by-side with accomplished engineers & scientists in a high-touch & quality-centric way
Our customer engagement model is superior. We work to:
- Understand your goals and problem statement — clearly and precisely
- Make thoughtful recommendations regarding both effectiveness AND economics
- Generate great data on high-quality, calibrated and well-maintained instruments
- Meet to review & interpret results and then assist you in thinking through next steps
As a material characterization services company, our mission is to help with your characterization, measurement, and imaging work as a trusted partner in achieving your objectives. Whether discussing data on a standard sample or helping on complex consulting engagements, we bring insight and experience.
We have a variety of programs to address the different needs of our customers
Membership pricingPre-purchase in bulk to get pricing well below our already competitive “standard” prices.
Co-op programsLet Covalent host and/or operate your instruments. A smart option when considering buying new instruments or for managing tools you own that are underutilized, expensive or difficult to operate/maintain. Covalent’s customers get better results for less CAPEX + OPEX, while maintaining preferred access.
consulting servicesLeverage Covalent professionals to provide specific expertise or even stand in for in-house Metrology functions.
Custom bundlesSolve your toughest problems with custom contracts combining Consulting Services with bulk-priced Sample Testing.
Upcoming and Recent Events
August 4, 2020 – Covalent’s Chris Moore, Vice President Technology to present at Rigaku’s Virtual Analytical X-Ray Convention, “Technology Insights & Trends Across the Metrology and Material Characterization Industry”
May 28, 2020 – NCCAVS Thin Film Users Group (TFUG) Virtual Meeting 2:45 pm: X-Ray Diffraction From the Easy to the Hard. Featuring Chris Moore, VP Technology at Covalent Metrology
February 4-6, 2020 – APEX EXPO IPC 2020
IPC APEX EXPO is the largest event for electronics manufacturing in North America with more than 9,000 professionals from 45 countries.
Dec. 4, 2019—SMTA Silicon Valley Chapter
Covalent Metrology is showcasing it’s failure analysis and materials characterization services to the SMTA community
Covalent Metrology will be exhibiting at the IDTechEX to showcase its characterization services for the the latest trends happening in Materials, Manufacturing and Component Innovation.
Nov. 5-7, 2019—MicroTech Innovation Summit 2019
Craig Hunter, Covalent Metrology CEO, is a Technology Innovation Showcase Presenter on “Metrology and Characterization: Emerging Techniques for MEMS and Sensors Devices.”
Atomic Force Microscopy for Advanced Optical Components
New applications for optical components place ever-higher demands on surface roughness and finish specifications. Current generation atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques provide accurate 3D images with sub-angstrom accuracy in less than a minute. These advancements make AFM ideal for applications requiring more detailed information than available with optical interferometry techniques.
Mid-Range Optical Profilometry: An OverviewProfilometry for surface characterization and dimensioning is a key area of expertise for Covalent Metrology and is proving invaluable to customers across a wide range of applications. At Covalent Metrology, profilometry covers a complete range of surface features using everything from atomic force microscopy (AFM) to optical systems to mechanical stylus systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the technology behind each of the three optical profilometry techniques Covalent Metrology offers and to discuss the relative advantages of each of them.