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Optical microscopy is ubiquitous in diverse fields within academic research and commercial industries. It is an affordable, rapid analytical imaging technique used to visualize samples. While optical microscopes may be common, many instruments fall far short on performance when compared with the cutting-edge digital microscope systems available at Covalent.
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measures surface topography of materials with sub-nm vertical resolution. The technique delivers fast data, with simple scans requiring only a few minutes to complete.
Attenuated-total-reflectance (ATR) is a sampling mode which enhances the Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) signal obtained from sample surfaces, increasing sensitivity and allowing efficient measurements with minimal sample preparation. Like standard FTIR measurements, ATR-FTIR is used for chemical qualification of a sample from raw optical spectra and is often used to determine organic composition.
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) is a surface-sensitive analytical technique with high lateral resolution. It is used to quantify and map the elemental composition of the outermost 2-10 nm of a material.
Capillary Flow Porometry (also called Porometry) is an optimal technique for characterizing through-pore size and size distribution in wettable materials, such as membranes, filtration media, ceramics, and papers. Covalent’s Porometry services use a top-of-line porometer from Anton Paar for maximized flexibility, speed, and reproducibility. See Also: Gas Adsorption Analysis for non-permeable solids
Cathodoluminescence (CL) is a combination microscopy and spectroscopy technique that produces high-speed spectral maps of optical emissions with nanoscale resolution. It is used to probe diverse features and properties of materials and devices, from the internal structures of direct bandgap semiconductors to surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles.
Chromatic dispersion profilometry is a non-contact, nondestructive analytical technique used to measure surface topography. It is particularly well suited for large area characterization (e.g. full wafers) requiring high vertical accuracy.
Dye and Pry testing is a destructive, IPC-prescribed failure-analysis and quality-control technique performed on solder joints on printed circuit board assemblies (PCBA) to identify certain defects unique to solder joints, such as: cracks, “head-in-pillow” defects, and other joint separations. Even when compared against X-ray analytical techniques, 'Dye and Pry' remains the most widely accepted technique for characterizing solder-ball die-attach quality defects. Our technical experts have over 20 years of experience executing Dye & Pry analysis in accordance with IPC standards.
Dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (D-SIMS) is a technique used to analyze very low concentrations of elements in solid surfaces and thin films. The ability to detect up to ppb levels of trace impurities and dopants in solid materials makes D-SIMS the most sensitive surface analytical technique.
Dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) is used to study changes in the mechanical properties of a material under periodic stress as the temperature is varied. DMA results are used to assess: glass transitions, melting points, elastic modulus, strain-to-break, toughness, creep, and numerous other thermal and mechanical properties.
Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) is a quantitative, chemical analytical technique used to study the elemental composition...
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) is a highly sensitive chemical analysis technique which measures the elemental composition...