Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)$99 Base price View My Quote Request
Microscopy & Imaging
Covalent provides microscopy imaging services with a host of cutting-edge instruments for scanning probe microscopy (including atomic force microscopy), optical profilometry (including confocal microscopy), and electron microscopy. These systems enable structural analysis and chemical mapping that allow you to investigate defects, deformations, multilayer film stacks, particles, and more.
Imaging analysis empowers engineers with morphological insights into their materials, parts, and devices. Use high-resolution microscopy to analyze surface and substructure topologies in your samples and to make measurements of critical dimensions and surface roughness.
Optical microscopy is ubiquitous in diverse fields within academic research and commercial industries. It is an affordable, rapid analytical imaging technique used to visualize samples. While optical microscopes may be common, many instruments fall far short on performance when compared with the cutting-edge digital microscope systems available at Covalent.
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measures surface topography of materials with sub-nm vertical resolution. The technique delivers fast data, with simple scans requiring only a few minutes to complete.
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) is a surface-sensitive analytical technique with high lateral resolution. It is used to quantify and map the elemental composition of the outermost 2-10 nm of a material.
Cathodoluminescence (CL) is a combination microscopy and spectroscopy technique that produces high-speed spectral maps of optical emissions with nanoscale resolution. It is used to probe diverse features and properties of materials and devices, from the internal structures of direct bandgap semiconductors to surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles.
Chromatic dispersion profilometry is a non-contact, nondestructive analytical technique used to measure surface topography. It is particularly well suited for large area characterization (e.g. full wafers) requiring high vertical accuracy.
Emission Microscopy (EMMI) is a non-invasive and non-destructive optical analysis technique used to localize photon emissions from fault points on integrated circuits. It is the industry-leading failure analysis technique used to isolate and analyze particular electrical failure types, such as: defective or leaky semiconductor junctions, ESD-induced damage, latch-up, and leakage current or overcurrent, among others.
Like other high-resolution scanning electron microscopes, Focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopes (FIB-SEMs) are used to produce 2D and 3D images of surface topography, and are able to resolve nm-scale features on a sample surface. The FIB allows advanced analytical workflows such as: cross-section, tomography, lithography, lamella prep, and many others.
Infrared thermography is the leading non-invasive and non-destructive method used to detect and localize material defects, short circuits, and other powered failures. It works by analyzing the heat dissipation that results from these device faults. Infrared thermography can be used to measure the heat distribution in integrated circuits (die) and printed circuit boards, and nearly any powered device to detect hot spots.
Laser scanning confocal microscopy (also called "VK" for the instrument used) is a nondestructive technique which generates 2D and 3D images of a sample surface. Covalent's laser confocal microscopes can accomplish both optical imaging (using broadband white light) and laser-confocal imaging.
Near-infrared imaging (NIR) is a nondestructive, noninvasive, and highly efficient method for localizing certain defects in photovoltaics and solar cells via electroluminescence. The technique is also a viable means of localizing defects in NIR fiber optic systems and lasers as well as monitoring high-temperature systems. NIR is currently seeing a growing field of application in pharmaceutical and polymers applications.
Raman spectroscopy is a chemical analysis technique which probes the vibrational modes of compounds. It produces a spectrum which can provide fingerprint identification of materials when compared against a reference library of known standards.
Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) is a quantitative, chemical analytical technique used to study the elemental composition...
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) is a highly sensitive chemical analysis technique which measures the elemental composition...