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Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (WDXRF)
Wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF or WDX) is a non-contact, non-destructive technique used to measure elemental composition, elemental concentration per unit area, and film thickness.
Due to its acute element sensitivity, it is particularly useful for identifying trace elements.
- Able to detect all elements present in a sample with atomic number > 4 (Be)
- Highest element sensitivity among XRF techniques, enables identification of trace elements
- Rapid, straightforward measurement with semi-quantitative concentration measurements
- High-precision element quantification can only be achieved with calibrated standards
GST thin film used in phase-change random access memory devices (PRAM), deposited by ALD; film was analyzed using both ED-XRF and WD-XRF to show comparable peak resolution between the techniques.
WDXRF high-resolution element scans for W/Co multi-layer stack, qualitatively showing total decomposition of W outer-layer after 2 etch cycles.
- Measurement Spot Size Range: 0.5 to 30 mm diameter
- Mapping enabled with multipoint measurements
- Detected Element Range: Be through U
- Elemental Sensitivity: ppm
- Peak Resolution (FWHM): 26 eV
- Film Thickness Range: 0.1 nm to 1 mm (approximate)
In a WDXRF measurement, the sample is irradiated with high energy mono-chromatic x-rays. This irradiation stimulates the emission of characteristic x-rays associated with elements present in the material.
WDXRF spectrometers use Bragg diffraction from crystals within the instrument to produce wavelength-separated peaks, each associated with a specific element. This yields semi-quantitative, and quantitative (if calibrated), information about the elements present in the sample matrix and their atomic ratios.
Unlike the related Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF or EDX) variant, WDXRF has excellent light element detection capability.
Datasheet: Medical Device Characterization with the Covalent Platform
Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA)
Electron probe microanlysis (EPMA) is a non-destructive technique used for high-sensitivity, quantitative determination of the elemental composition of...