Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
GST thin film used in phase-change random access memory devices (PRAM), deposited by ALD; film was analyzed using both ED-XRF and WD-XRF to show comparable peak resolution between the techniques.

Wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF or WDX) is a non-contact, non-destructive technique used to measure elemental composition, elemental concentration per unit area, and film thickness.

Due to its acute element sensitivity, it is particularly useful for identifying trace elements.

Strengths
  • Able to detect all elements present in a sample with atomic number > 4 (Be)
  • Highest element sensitivity among XRF techniques, enables identification of trace elements
  • Rapid, straightforward measurement with semi-quantitative concentration measurements
Limitations
  • High-precision element quantification can only be achieved with calibrated standards
Base Prices
Technique Variants
Pricing Starts At
Action
Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (WDXRF)
$400 / Hour

Example Outputs
<p>GST thin film used in phase-change random access memory devices (PRAM), deposited by ALD; film was analyzed using both ED-XRF and WD-XRF to show comparable peak resolution between the techniques.</p>
<h6>From: Rigaku</h6>

GST thin film used in phase-change random access memory devices (PRAM), deposited by ALD; film was analyzed using both ED-XRF and WD-XRF to show comparable peak resolution between the techniques.

From: Rigaku
<p>WDXRF high-resolution element scans for W/Co multi-layer stack, qualitatively showing total decomposition of W outer-layer after 2 etch cycles.</p>
<h6>From: Rigaku</h6>

WDXRF high-resolution element scans for W/Co multi-layer stack, qualitatively showing total decomposition of W outer-layer after 2 etch cycles.

From: Rigaku
Sample Requirements
  • Sample Diameter: up to 400 mm
  • Sample Thickness: up to 50 mm
  • Sample Mass: up to 30 kg
Instruments Used for WDXRF
Rigaku AZX-400

Rigaku AZX-400

  • Measurement Spot Size Range: 0.5 to 30 mm diameter
  • Mapping enabled with multipoint measurements
  • Detected Element Range: Be through U
  • Elemental Sensitivity: ppm
  • Peak Resolution (FWHM): 26 eV
  • Film Thickness Range: 0.1 nm to 1 mm (approximate)

View Instrument Spec Sheet

How WDXRF Works

In a WDXRF measurement, the sample is irradiated with high energy mono-chromatic x-rays. This irradiation stimulates the emission of characteristic x-rays associated with elements present in the material.

WDXRF spectrometers use Bragg diffraction from crystals within the instrument to produce wavelength-separated peaks, each associated with a specific element. This yields semi-quantitative, and quantitative (if calibrated), information about the elements present in the sample matrix and their atomic ratios.

Unlike the related Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF or EDX) variant, WDXRF has excellent light element detection capability.

Additional Resources

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